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  • 原文摘要
  • 既有低收入居民空间困境的研究以居住空间研究为主,关注低收入者受到的住房与社区隔离,难以刻画低收入者在整日尺度面临的时空制约.行为空间作为行为地理学与时间地理学的重要概念,为描述低收入居民在日常生活中面临的移动性与可达性相关的问题提供了有力的工具.本文提出利用潜在活动空间和实际活动空间共同描述居民行为空间,分析低收入居民在时空可达性和实际利用城市空间能力上的劣势.基于2012年北京市上地—清河居民活动与出行日志,利用路网分析、最小多边形分析等方法刻画居民每日的潜在活动空间和实际活动空间.通过对不同收入群体的比较,发现低收入居民比其他居民的潜在活动空间和实际活动空间都要小.进一步构建模型分析潜在活动空间和实际活动空间的影响因素,发现包括收入在内的个体社会经济属性、空间属性和行为属性对潜在活动空间和实际活动空间存在影响,但是二者的影响因素存在差异.对行为空间的测量有利于增进对于不同群体社会分异与空间隔离的认知,对未来的研究具有重要的意义. How low-income residents suffer from spatial inequality has attracted significant attention in urban geography and urban planning.Although most research related to this question has addressed spatial segregation and spatial dilemmas in the context of residential neighborhoods,an increasing number of studies have focused on inequality in daily activity and travel behaviors.Particularly in a modem society with high mobility,behavior space is believed to be a good index for measuring spatial inequality among different social groups.In this paper,we use a behavior space approach to study spatial inequality among income groups.The study area is Shangdi-Qinghe,which is an inner suburban region with mixed social groups and neighborhoods.Using a GPS-facilitated activity diary completed in Beijing in 2012,we calculate individuals' daily potential path areas and activity spaces by using network analysis tools and minimum polygon tools in ArcGIS 10.2.We compare the sizes of daily potential path areas and activity spaces among income groups and find that compared with other social groups,low-income residents have smaller daily potential path areas and smaller activity spaces.This result indicates that such residents suffer from both an accessibility dilemma and disadvantages in mobility.By constructing a regression model,we find that socio-economy,urban form and activity factors have significant impact on behavior spaces.Middle-and low-income single residents have relatively small daily potential path areas and activity spaces.Women,older residents,and those who do not live in danwei neighborhoods and residents who work in local areas have relatively small activity spaces.Activity space and daily potential path area are both positively related to facility density around one's home,while activity space is negatively related to facility density around one's workplace.Residents who live far from railway stations and work near railway stations have relatively small activity spaces.Working hours have a significant negative impact on both daily potential path area and activity space.Space-time constraints significantly affect daily potential path area.Certain planning applications of these findings are discussed.
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